Dr Richard Smart believes that trunk diseases are now more widespread than Phylloxera. The most serious trunk diseases are esca, eutypa and black dead arm. In 2014, it is estimated that 100,000 hectares of vineyards in France are affected and it is costing France EUR$1 billion a year. Michel Lafarge in Volnay believes that a lot of trunk diseases happened because of the use of omega grafting in nurseries. Planting material of the nurseries is a potential propagation source. He field grafts his vines as the sap produced in spring can help to perfect the grafting seal although the rate of success of grafting can be as low as only about 50%.
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